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ההיסטוריה של ארה"ב

מקצוע: היסטוריה, כיתה: י"א, מאת: Sally Mustang, פורסם: 15/05/2008
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A Brief History of The United States of America

Key Terms
Abraham Lincoln was born in Hardin (now Larue) County, Ky., on Feb. 12, 1809. His family
moved to Indiana and then to Illinois, and Lincoln gained what education he could along
the way. While reading law, he worked in a store, managed a mill, surveyed, and split rails. In
1834, he went to the Illinois legislature as a Whig and became the party's floor leader. 1855, he
was a candidate for senator and the next year he joined the new Republican Party. Not an
abolitionist, he held the slavery issue subordinate to that of preserving the Union, but soon
perceived that the war could not be brought to a successful conclusion without freeing the
slaves. His administration was hampered by the incompetence of many Union generals, the
inexperience of the troops, and the harassing political tactics both of the Republican
Radicals, who favored a hard policy toward the South, and the Democratic Copperheads,
who desired a negotiated peace. The Gettysburg Address of Nov. 19, 1863, marks the high
point in the record of American eloquence. Lincoln's long search for a winning combination
finally brought generals Ulysses S. Grant and William T. Sherman to the top; and their series of
victories in 1864 dispelled the mutterings from both Radicals and Peace Democrats that at
one time seemed to threaten Lincoln's reelection. He was reelected in 1864, defeating Gen.
George B. McClellan, the Democratic candidate. His inaugural address urged leniency
toward the South: “With malice toward none, with charity for all . . . let us strive on to finish the
work we are in; to bind up the nation's wounds . . .” This policy aroused growing opposition
on the part of the Republican Radicals, but before the matter could be put to the test, Lincoln
was shot by the actor John Wilkes Booth at Ford's Theater, Washington, on April 14, 1865. He
died the next morning. Lincoln's marriage to Mary Todd in 1842 was often unhappy and
turbulent, in part because of his wife's pronounced instability.
Civil War fought between 1861 and 1865, was a battle to determine the fate of slavery and
union in America. Under the stern leadership of Abraham Lincoln, union was eventually
preserved, and slavery was abolished per the Thirteenth Amendment
Confederate States of America is the government established by the Southern states of the
United States after their secession from the Union.
Connecticut (1635) - Founded by settlers from Massachusetts and other colonies. New Haven
Colony, founded by settlers from Massachusetts in 1638, annexed to Connecticut in 1662,
when the older colony was granted a royal charter.
Delaware (1638) - Settled by Swedes; seized by the Dutch in 1655 and by the English in 1664.
Granted to William Penn in 1682.
Frederick Douglass (1817-1895) an ex-slave, abolitionist and an orator.
Gen. Robert E. Lee born in 1807 in Virginia, was the Confederate General during the
Civil war. Died on 1870.
Georgia (1733) - Granted to a private company by George II in 1732 and settled a year later
in Savannah.
Gettysburg Address, a speech delivered by Abraham Lincoln on Nov. 19, 1863, at the
dedication of the national cemetery on the Civil War battlefield of Gettysburg, Pa. “Four score
and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent, a new nation, conceived in
Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal. Now we are
engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation, or any nation so conceived and so
dedicated, can long endure. We are met on a great battlefield of that war. We have come to
dedicate a portion of that field, as a final resting place for those who here gave their lives so
that nation might live. It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this. But, in a larger
sense, we cannot dedicate—we cannot consecrate—we cannot hallow—this ground. The
brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it, far above our poor
power to add or detract. The world will little note, nor long remember what we say here, but it
can never forget what they did here. It is for us the living, rather, to be dedicated here to the
unfinished work, which they who fought here have thus far so nobly, advanced. It is rather for
us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us—that from these honored dead
we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last full measure of
devotion—that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain—that this
nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom—and that government of the people,
by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.”
Gettysburg, July 1863 occurs as a series of Civil War battles. After his victory in the battle of
Chancellorsville, Confederate general Robert E. Lee undertook a second invasion of the
North. The reorganized Army of Northern Virginia crossed the Potomac (June 17) via the
Shenandoah Valley, which Richard S. Ewell (2d Corps), as leader of the advance, swept clear
of Union forces. On July 1, John Buford's cavalry, covering Reynolds, came into contact with
Harry Heth's division of Hill's corps on the Chambersburg pike just W of Gettysburg. The
environs of Gettysburg thus became the unintended site of the greatest battle of the war (July
1–3, 1863). The Federals had the best of A. P. Hill's forces until mid-afternoon on the first day at
Gettysburg, when, outflanked by Ewell, advancing from the north, they were driven to
Cemetery Hill, south of the town. Meade on the recommendation of Winfield Scott Hancock
abandoned his Pipe Creek plans and hurried up his whole force. On July 2, against the Union
left, Longstreet led the main attack, which was not delivered until about 4 P.M.; the Army of
the Potomac thus had time to consolidate its strong position. The Confederates took the
Peach Orchard but were repulsed when they attempted to seize Round Top and Little Round
Top, commanding eminences at the south end of Cemetery Ridge. On the Union right, Ewell
carried Culp's Hill but was beaten off at Cemetery Hill. Meade's counterattack on the morning
of July 3 retook Culp's Hill. Lee ordered Longstreet to attack the Union center with George E.
Pickett's division, supported by part of Hill's corps (about 15,000 men in all). After a
bombardment of the Union position by the massed Confederate artillery, Pickett moved
forward in his famous charge. In the face of terrific artillery and musket fire, the gallant
Southerners reached and momentarily held the first Union line. But Pickett's support gave way,
and Hancock drove him back with tremendous losses. Meanwhile David M. Gregg defeated
Stuart’s cavalry, in an attempt to get at the Union right and rear. Both armies, exhausted, held
their positions until the night of July 4, when Lee withdrew. High water in the Potomac delayed
his crossing back to Virginia, but Meade did not attack him in force. The Union army, which
had been the more numerous, lost 23,000 men either killed, wounded, or missing; the
Confederate army lost 25,000 (although that figure is questionable). Both commanding
generals have been criticized for their conduct of the campaign—Lee for his unwarranted
reliance on unseasoned commanders and his authorization of Pickett's charge; Meade for
failing to organize his forces to counterattack and pursue the fleeing enemy. The campaign
marked the high point of the Confederate activity during the war.
Henry Clay engineered the Missouri Compromise of 1820. It allowed for the entry of Missouri to
the Union as a slave state, largely in exchange for the creation of a demarcation line
categorically prohibiting the extension slavery north of Missouri's southern border. This
legislation was later repealed by Stephen Douglas’ Kansas-Nebraska Act and Supreme Court
Chief Justice Roger Taney's Dred Scott decision.
Hippie member of a youth movement of the late 1960s that was characterized by nonviolent
anarchy, concern for the environment, and rejection of Western materialism. Also known as
flower power, the hippie movement originated in San Francisco, California. The hippies
formed a politically outspoken, antiwar, artistically prolific counterculture in North America
and Europe. Drugs inspired their colorful psychedelic style, which emerged in fashion, graphic
art, and music (Love, the Grateful Dead, Jefferson Airplane, and Pink Floyd).
Jefferson Davis was the president of the Confederacy born in 1808 in Christian (now
Todd) County, Ky. Died on1889.
Jim Bridger was a storybook frontiersman. He was born in Virginia on St. Pat's Day, 1804. From
1824 until the late 1860s he was the premier Indian fighter, beaver trapper, fur trader and
guide to the Wild West. He was also a storekeeper, scout, explorer and discoverer
Laissez-faire the theory or system of government that upholds the autonomous character of
the economic order, believing that government should intervene as little as possible in the
direction of economic affairs
Lewis and Clark were assigned by President Thomas Jefferson to explore the region of the
Louisiana Purchase and beyond as far as the Pacific Ocean. They were guided by a Native
Shoshone woman, Sacagawea, and brought with them trade goods. They opened a road
The Oregon Trail that for many years was the main route to the west.
Louisiana Purchase accomplished in 1803, was a sale of the Louisiana Territory from France to
the United States for a sum of $15 million. Although the Louisiana Purchase raised several
thorny issues of constitutional interpretation, Congress, thus initiating the rapid growth of an
American Empire in the Western Hemisphere, ultimately approved it.
Maryland (1634) - Granted to Lord Baltimore.
Massachusetts (1620) - Founded as two colonies: Plymouth Colony (1620), settled by the
Pilgrims; and Massachusetts Bay Colony (1630), settled by the Puritans. They were united in
1691, and annexed Maine, which had been colonized by the New England Council in the
1620's.
Monopoly means complete control of a market in means of price, competition or a
production line.
New Hampshire (1622) - Originally part of Maine, then a colony from 1629 until annexed by
Massachusetts, 1641-1643. Became a separate colony again in 1679.
New Jersey (1618) - Originally settled by the Dutch, but seized by the English in 1664.
New York (1624) - Founded as New Netherlands by the Dutch West India Company. Seized by
the English in 1664 and renamed.
North Carolina (1653) - Settled by pioneers from other colonies. Carolina was separated from
Virginia and granted to a private company in 1663; divided into two colonies in 1711. Made
a royal providence in 1729.
On Aug. 10 1965 Congress passes the Voting Rights Act of 1965, making it easier for Southern
blacks to register to vote. Literacy tests and other such requirements that tended to restrict
black voting become illegal.
On Aug. 28 1963 about 250,000 people join the March on Washington. Congregating at the
Lincoln Memorial, participants listen as Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr. delivers his famous "I
Have a Dream" speech.
Pennsylvania (1623) - Originally settled by Dutch and Swedes. Came under English control in
the 1664 and was granted to William Penn by Charles II in 1681.
Pilgrims were a religious group that moved from England to America to gain religious
freedom. They believed the reformation of the Anglican Church hadn’t gone far enough, and
their ways were not welcomed in England.
Puritans were, as were the pilgrims, a religious group. They, however had political intentions
because their communities placed hierarchism together with religious education.
Revolutionary War was fought between 1775 and 1782, beginning with the first shots fired at
the Battles of Lexington and Concord and ending with Lord Cornwallis' surrender to George
Washington at Yorktown, Virginia. In the initial fighting, British forces overwhelmed the
inexperienced and undermanned colonial rebels. However, significant military assistance from
French forces on land and at sea eventually helped ensure an American victory.
Rhode Island (1636) - Settled by two groups from Massachusetts and united in 1644. Chartered
by King Charles II in 1663.
Rosa Parks, born in 1913, an activist with the Montgomery, Alabama, National Association for
the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), made history in 1955 when she refused to
give up her seat on a bus for a white passenger. She was arrested, and the Montgomery
black community launched a bus boycott that would be one of the pivotal events in the civil-
rights movement.
Secession in political science, formal withdrawal from an association by a group
discontented with the actions or decisions of that association. The term is generally used to
refer to withdrawal from a political entity; such withdrawal usually occurs when a territory or
state believes itself justified in establishing its independence from the political entity of which it
was a part. The secessionists argued that the union created by the Constitution was only a
compact of sovereign states and that power given to the federal government was only
partial and limited, not paramount over the states, and effective only in the specific fields
assigned it. The states, being sovereign, had the legal right to withdraw from the voluntary
union. The opponents of the right of secession believed that the Constitution created a
sovereign and inviolable union and that withdrawal from that union was impossible. Prior to
the Civil War secessionist sentiments were evidenced in both the North (see Hartford
Convention) and South, but as the North grew more powerful, talk of secession became more
common in the South. The nullification movement, which held that any state could declare
null and void any federal law that infringed upon its rights, was an attempt to eradicate the
need for secession by giving the states complete sovereignty. Measures such as the Missouri
Compromise and the Compromise of 1850 were merely delays in resolving whether the states
or the federal government was to possess sovereignty. Desiring to maintain the slave system
and threatened by the North socially and economically, the South finally seceded from the
Union soon after the election of Abraham Lincoln. The defeat of the Confederacy in the
bloody war that followed settled the constitutional controversy permanently.
Seven Years War was fought between 1755 and 1763, and involved a complicated web of
alliances and adversaries in European and American theaters. The fighting that occurred in
the American theater is often referred to as the French and Indian War. The big winners in the
event were the British and the Prussians, who increased their claims in North America and
Northern Europe, respectively. As a result of the 1763 Treaty of Paris that ended the war, the
Floridas passed from Spanish to British control. As compensation, the French transferred
control of the Louisiana Territory to Spain.
South Carolina (1670) – Originally a part of Carolina Colony, was separated from North
Carolina in 1711, and became a royal providence in 1729.
State’s Rights is a doctrine based on the Tenth Amendment to the Constitution, which states,
“The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the
States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people.”
Ulysses Simpson Grant was born (as Hiram Ulysses Grant) at Point Pleasant, Ohio, on April 27,
1822. He graduated from West Point in 1843 and served without particular distinction in the
Mexican War. In 1848 he married Julia Dent. He resigned from the army in 1854, after warnings
from his commanding officer about his drinking habits, and for the next six years held a wide
variety of jobs in the Middle West. With the outbreak of the Civil War, he sought a command
and soon, to his surprise, was made a brigadier general. His continuing successes in the
western theaters, culminating in the capture of Vicksburg, Miss., in 1863, brought him national
fame and soon the command of all the Union armies. Grant's dogged, implacable policy of
concentrating on dividing and destroying the Confederate armies brought the war to an end
in 1865. The next year, he was made full general.
Virginia (1607) - Established by the London Company
War of 1812 was fought between the United States and Great Britain over control of
international commerce on the high seas. After a lengthy campaign, the United States
emerged victorious, producing in the process a new set of war heroes including Andrew
Jackson and Winfield Scott.


A Brief History of The United States of America

Main Topic Questions
1. Discuss the difficulties Jefferson Davis faced in attempting to forge a Confederate
government. [Answer]
2. Discuss the importance of the battle of Gettysburg. Why is it considered the turning point of
the war?
3. How is the ensuing Treaty of Paris important to Colonial America?
4. In your opinion, has history proven the success of the Monroe Doctrine?
5. Name the main reasons for the foundation and growth o the great cities of the west.
6. What factors enabled the North to win the war?
7. Why did Lincoln issue the Emancipation Proclamation? [Answer]
8. Write your response to the Gettysburg Address.
9. Where did the Cold War get its name? From today's perspective, who "won" the Cold War?



Answers
1. Davis was crippled from the initial stages of the Confederacy because the southern states
clung fiercely to the idea of states' rights. One of the reasons the southern states seceded from
the Union was because they felt that Lincoln and the federal government were threatening
their freedom as individual states. Under those circumstances, it was difficult to get these states
to understand the importance of centralized planning and coordination.
2. Gettysburg marks a turnaround in the course of the Civil War. It resembles changing military
technologies and mentality together with dropping momentum and morale (together with the
Vicksburg surrender). It was a very gory battle that changed American history forever.
3. Signed on September 3, 1783 and ratified by Congress on January 14, 1784, the Treaty of Paris
ended the Revolutionary War and granted the United States its independence. It further
granted the US all land east of the Mississippi River, and contained clauses that bound
Congress to urge state legislatures to compensate loyalists for property damage during the
war and allow British creditors to collect debts accrued before the war. While generally
acceptable, the Treaty of Paris opened the door to future disputes. The Treaty ended the era
of Colonial America and allowed the United States to take over.
4. Yes it has. The Monroe Doctrine, published during President Monroe's second administration
on December 2, 1823, called for an end to European intervention in the Western Hemisphere.
It was largely the brainchild of then-Secretary of State John Quincy Adams. Although virtually
unenforceable at the time it was issued, the United States later continued to expand its
imperial domain in the Western Hemisphere with perceived justification via the Monroe
Doctrine. Without this document, the development of the United States would not have
happened, and the image of America would not have been what it is today.
5. There are three main reasons for the growth of the west and the foundation of western cities
and states. First, rumors of gold findings. Those urged individuals to tease their luck and search
for gold. Also, technological development. It encouraged the pioneer phenomenon.
Transportation, communication and medicine made life for travelers and pioneers easier than
they would have been 50 years beforehand. Also, with growing industrialism some wanted to
vast and stabilize farming and agriculture. Imperialism and urge for power contributed some
as well. Powerful countries started suffixing areas of government; therefore the American
government encouraged the exploration and settlement of the west (Lewis and Clark
Expedition).
6. The Confederacy had lost the war after General R. E. Lee surrendered to the Union armies.
Many things complimented to the South’s loss in the war. First, smaller iota of manpower than
the North’s. All black Americans form the Union were much more willing to fight for freedom.
Moreover, the North is more densely populated and had better infrastructure. Then, the South
had also been low on resources and it was relying on trade for food supplies, medicine, and
weapons. Lastly, moral was a problem in the Confederate armies, and soldiers were
suppressed much more than those in the Union.
7. The Emancipation Proclamation, officially issued by Lincoln on January 1, 1863, freed all
slaves in the insurgent portions of the Confederate States of America. The document did not
apply to confederate areas under Union control or to the Border States. In practical terms, the
Emancipation Proclamation was virtually unenforceable, but it set the tide of antislavery
rhetoric and moral integrity squarely behind the Union. Lincoln was very careful to portray the
Emancipation Proclamation as a means to an end-a-war measure designed to cripple the
South economically and devastate its morale. For this reason, he crafted it to free only slaves
in "rebelling" areas, leaving some 300,000 blacks in the Border States still enslaved. He did not
intend for the proclamation to be viewed as the reason for the North to continue fighting the
war, although it became as much for some.
8. The Gettysburg address is a well-written speech by a dedicated person. Very moving,
presenting many thought that root in liberty, equality, unity, and Americanism. It is indeed of
the people, by the people, for the people of the United States, throughout history. From that
point on it has proven to thrive in that direction.
9. The Cold War is the post-World War II struggle between the United States and its allies and the
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) and its allies. During the Cold War period, which
lasted from the mid-1940s until the end of the 1980s, international politics were heavily shaped
by the intense rivalry between these two great blocs of power and the political ideologies
they represented: democracy and capitalism in the case of the United States and its allies,
and Communism in the case of the Soviet bloc. The principal allies of the United States during
the Cold War included Britain, France, West Germany, Japan, and Canada. On the Soviet
side were many of the countries of Eastern Europe—including Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia,
Hungary, Poland, East Germany, and Romania—and, during parts of the Cold War, Cuba
and China. From 1989 to 1991 the cold war came to an end with the opening of the Berlin
Wall, the collapse of Communist party dictatorship in Eastern Europe, the reunification of
Germany, and the disintegration of the Soviet Union. From today's perspective the United
States seems to have won the war. The fight of ideology of communism and democracy has
proven for the US when the dictatorship in Russia fell.


A Brief History of The United States of America

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