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אטומים ויונים

מקצוע: כימיה, כיתה: י', מאת: Sally Mustang, פורסם: 01/01/1970
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סיכום באנגלית על אטומים ויונים


Chapter 1- Matter

? When a substance changes its state of matter changes occur in the distance between the
particles (1), their order and form (2), their movement (3), and their forces and strengths
? Characteristics of matter is measured by the kind of its particles (1), the arrangement of the
particles (2), and the interaction between those particles (3)
? TEMPERATURE the average velocity of the particles
? Room temperature is 25 degrees Celsius
? MELTING changes matter from solid state to the liquid one by INCREASING heat
? VAPORIZING changes matter from liquid state to the gassy one by INCREASING heat
? FREASING changes liquid to solid
? SUBLIMING changes solid to gas
? COURSENING changes gas to liquid

Chapter 2- Atoms and Molecules

? All mater is built of little particles called ATOMS
? A MOLECULE is a number of atoms connected with a chemical bond
? An ELEMENT is a substance in which all its atoms or are identical and chemically bonded
? A COMPOUND is a substance in which different types of atoms connect with chemical
bonds
? Matter in which all molecules are identical is called a SUBSTANCE
? Matter in which two or more substances are combined not through a chemical bond is
called a MIXTURE
? A FORMULA represents the types of atoms in an atom, ion, molecule, etc., and shows they
relationship between its sub-particles
? ATOMIC NUMBER=the number of protons
? ATOMIC SYMBOL=a latter or two letters symbolizing a type of atom

Chapter 3- Metals and Nonmetals

? Metals transfer heat and electricity
? Metals are shiny
? Metals are solid at room temperature (except for mercury)
? Metals are ductile (drawn into a wire) and malleable (hammered into a sheet
? Metals’ atomic arrangement has a more defined figure and a specific, repetitious form

? Nonmetals are poor conductors of heat and electricity
? Come in all states of matter at room temperature
? Are not ductile nor malleable
? Do not have a defined atomic arrangement

Chapter 4- The Atom

? Built of sub-particles: protons, neutrons, and electrons
? Protons have a positive (+) charge
? Neutrons have a neutral charge
? Electrons have a negative (-) charge
? Protons and Neutrons are located in the nucleolus and affect the mass of the atom
? Electrons are located at the electron Cloud and affect the volume of the atom
? The number of protons=the number of neutrons=the number of electrons in a neutrally
charged atom
? Atomic number=the number of protons (b/c protons don’t leave the atom and don’t
affect it radioactively
? The electrons are divided into energy levels
? The first level can hold up to 2 electrons
? The second level can hold up to 8
? The third level can hold up to 8
? The forth level can hold up to 18
? The fifth level can hold up to 36


Chapter 5- Electrostatics

? Electrons can get out of the atom and sit ONTOP of other substances, charging them
negatively, causing a separation between the electrons and the protons, poling the
substance (like a magnet)
? This happens b/c: negative + negative=rejection (1) positive + positive=rejection (2)
positive + negative=attraction (3)
? Therefore when a poled substance comes around another an attraction/rejection will take
place
? It would make sense if electrons would be attracted, and therefore stick to the protons, but
b/c of the centrifugal motion they stay in orbit
? There are atomic powers and forces that hold together the neutrons and protons, that are
logical to reject each other due to their electrical charges
? Electrons travel approximately 1.8 million kilometers per hour

Chapter 6- Types and Characteristics of Gasses

? Air is a mixture of several gases: Nitrogen (78%); Oxygen (21%); Carbon dioxide, Hydrogen,
Water vapor, and Argon (1%)
Nitrogen makes up 78% of the air
It is colorless and odorless
it comes in diatomic molecules
doesn’t make fire or breathing possible
? Oxygen makes up 21% of the air
it is colorless and odorless
it comes in diatomic (air) and tri-atomic (the ozone layer) molecules
makes fire and breath possible
it is released by plants in photosynthesis
? Carbon dioxide makes up less than 1% of the air
it is colorless and odorless
it is released from fire and from breathing creatures
It is heavier than the air
doesn’t make fire or breathing possible
acidic (ph)
does not have a liquid state, it sublimes
? Hydrogen makes up less than 1% of the ail
it is colorless and odorless
lighter than the air
flammable and explosive
? Iodine Gas
does not have a liquid state, sublimes
transparent and purple
Ammonia
has odor but no color
basic (ph)

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